Digital Game Based Learning
by Video Games Without Borders
Game based learning (GBL) is a type of game play that has defined learning outcomes.
Digital game based learning (DGBL) refers to using actual digital video games as learning tools.
GBL is NOT gamification
Game-based learning should not be confused with gamification.
Gamification takes an element of education and replaces it with a game-based element. For instance, a teacher may replace grades with levels or experience points.
several types of games may be used in digital game-based learning:
- Educational Games: use an engaging and immersive learning experience to deliver specified learning goals, outcomes and experiences.
- Online Games: range from simple text-based games to games that span complex, virtual worlds used by large numbers of players simultaneously.
- Serious Games: train or educate users; generally, serious games have a primary purpose other than entertainment.
- Simulations: model real-world situations.
- Language Learning
- Mathematics and Science (STEM)
- Social Studies and History
- Development of Cognitive Skills
- A safe environment to explore and in which to make mistakes
- Learning through enjoyment and "fun"
- Contextualised, goal oriented instead of abstract learning
- Experiential learning: learning by doing
- Intrinsic motivation: playing is voluntary and self-driven
- Seamless accountability and feedback
- Combine audio, graphics and movement into an interactive and immersive environment
- Age and culture appropriate
- A fictional or real world setting
- Progressive difficulty levels and appropriate challenge
- Immediate and constructive feedback
- A social element that allows people to share experience and build bonds
- Clear, achievable goals, rules, measurable outcomes and rewards
Games bring together combination of motivating elements not found together in any other medium. Games: - are a form of fun -> enjoyment and pleasure - are a form of play -> intense and passionate involvement - are rules -> structure - are goals -> motivation - are interactive -> doing - are adaptive -> flow - have outcomes and feedback -> learning - have a win state -> ego gratification - have conflict/competition/challenge/opposition -> adrenaline - have problem solving -> sparks creativity - have peer interaction -> social groups - have characters and story -> emotions
36 Learning principles in VideoGames
|1. Active, Critical Learning Principle||All aspects of the the learning environment are set up to encourage active and critical, not passive, learning|
|2. Design Principle||Appreciating good design|
|3. Semiotic Principle||Seeing interrelations within and across multiple sign systems (images, words, actions, symbols, artifacts, etc.) as a complex system is core to the learning experience|
|4. Semiotic Domains Principle||Mastering game languages and participation in the affinity groups connected to them|
|5. Metalevel Thinking About Semiotic Domains Principle||Relating the game world to other worlds|
|6. "Psychosocial Moratorium" Principle||Taking risks with reduced consequences|
|7. Committed Learning Principle||Putting out effort because they care|
|8. Identity Principle||Combining multiple identities|
|9. Self-Knowledge Principle||Watching their own behaviour and their current and potential capacities|
|10. Amplification Of Input Principle||For a little input, learners get a lot of output|
|11. Achievement Principle||intrinsic rewards from the beginning, customised to each learner's level, effort, and growing mastery and signaling the learner's ongoing achievements|
|12. Practice Principle||Being encouraged to practice in a context where the practice is not boring|
|13. Ongoing Learning Principle||Having to master new skills at each level, with cycles of new learning, automatization, undoing automatization, and new re-organized automatization|
|14. "Regime Of Competence" Principle||Tasks being neither too easy nor too hard.|
|15. Probing Principle||Learning is a cycle of probing the world (doing something); reflecting in and on this action and, on this basis, forming a hypothesis; reprobing the world to test this hypothesis; and then accepting or rethinking the hypothesis|
|16. Multiple Routes Principle||There are multiple ways to make progress or move ahead. This allows learners to make choices, rely on their own strengths and styles of learning and problem-solving, while also exploring alternative styles|
|17. Situated Meaning Principle||Discovering meaning of signs (words, actions, objects, artifacts, symbols, texts, etc.) situated in embodied experience|
|18. Text Principle||Texts are not understood purely verbally but are understood in terms of embodied experience|
|19. Intertextual Principle||Relating information|
|20. Multimodal Principle||Meshing information from multiple media (images, texts, symbols, interactions, abstract design, sound, etc.), not just words|
|21. "Material Intelligence" Principle||Understanding how knowledge is stored in material objects and the environment|
|22. Intuitive Knowledge Principle||Intuitive or tacit knowledge built up in repeated practice and experience. Not just verbal and conscious knowledge is rewarded|
|23. Subset Principle||Practicing in a simplified setting|
|24. Incremental Principle||Being led from easy problems to harder ones|
|25. Concentrated Sample Principle||Mastering upfront things needed later|
|26. Bottom-Up Basic Skills Principle||Repeating basic skills in many games|
|27. Explicit Information On-Demand Just-In-Time Principle||Receiving information just when it is needed|
|28. Discovery Principle||Experiments and Trying rather than following instructions|
|29. Transfer Principle||Applying learning from problems to later ones|
|30. Cultural Models About The World Principle||Thinking about the game and the real world|
|31. Cultural Models About Learning Principle||Thinking about the game and how they learn|
|32. Cultural Models About Semiotic Domains||Thinking about the games and their culture|
|33. Distributed Principle||Meaning/knowledge is distributed across the learner, objects, tools, symbols, technologies, and the environment|
|34. Dispersed Principle||Sharing knowledge with others outside the domain/game|
|35. Affinity Group Principle||Being part of the gaming world and affinity groups bonded by the game and not shared race, gender, nation, ethnicity, or culture|
|36. Insider Principle||Helping others and modifying games, in addition to just playing|
- introduction to videogame (+coach: tech + expectations)
- gameplay / experience (autonomous)
- game results / scores (autonomous)
- reflection / analysis (+coach)
- forming abstract concepts + real world application
- ICT / Basic Digital Skills
- Minimal game playing experience
- Deep understanding of how a game can help learning and its differences with a classic book/course
- Recognise different players skills and support their game play
- Engage students in playing and progression
Using games for assessment is more than games scores.
Assessment happens around a game more often than it happens inside the game, and teachers/coaches must still design and provide authentic, useful assessment tasks for students.
- Use entertainment/commercial games (Assassin's Creed / Civilization)
- Modify entertainment games (Kerbal Space Academy)
- Use virtual worlds (Minecraft)
- Use educational games (MinecraftEdu)
- Create games (Antura)
- Students create games
Objectives of learning analytics
Curriculum: identify how a certain game can connect to the curriculum.
Game related: identify the accuracy and appropriateness of the content of the game. Irrelevant or distracting content from the game that could not be removed.
Attitudes: persuading all stakeholders and non-players about the educational value of the game.
Educators and Teachers support: make them aware of how to use games more effectively in education.
Assessment: Traditional assessments do not often align with GBL, so new models and approaches must be considered.
Developers encourage and support game developers in the creation of better educational games
Creata: 22 maggio 2023